The debts that I have incurred during this project are more numerous than I can list and deeper than I can properly recognize. On the institutional level, grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Ohio Board of Regents greatly eased my path, and I have been continually assisted by librarians, administrators, and colleagues at Case Western Reserve University.
I have also been aided far beyond reasonable duty by William B.
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Frederic L. Holmes, Elizabeth Knoll, and Kathryn Olesko each read the entire manuscript with care and gave me the benefit of their considerable expertise; the book is much better for their interest and advice. Some of the themes of this work were presented in at a conference on Chemical Sciences in the Modern World internationale dating seite by the Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry; I have much benefited from conversations there and elsewhere with O.
Relative dating regents questions owe an immense debt to German scholars and archivists. The largest single component of the Kolbe Nachlass— important letters—is held by Vieweg Verlag in Wiesbaden, and staff members there have been extraordinarily generous in their help, both on and relative dating regents questions site; I particularly thank Albrecht Weis, Michael Langfeld, and Ilse Dobslaw.
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Not far behind in importance for this project were the rich Sondersammlungen of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, and my work there over the course of several visits was much aided by the friendly ministrations of Otto Krätz and Margret Nida-Rümelin. I owe a particular debt to Elisabeth Vaupel, director of the Abteilung Chemie, who answered an immodestly long series of queries with unfailing patience and made a number of important suggestions.
Eric, Otto, and Alexander yon Baeyer graciously made their grandfather's resp. I am particularly grateful to Professor Colin Russell and Mr. Raven Frankland, who granted me generous use of the microfilms of Edward Frankland's relative dating regents questions correspondence.
A version of parts of chapters 5, 9, and 13 is appearing with permission relative dating regents questions as a paper in Osiris 8 Some of the themes and the language in this book will also appear as an essay in S. Mauskopf, ed. A version of the material on chauvinism in chapter 14 will appear in the Bulletin for the History of Chemistry.
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Finally, the material on antisemitism, also in chapter 14, was first presented in a Festschrift session in in honor of O. Every author owes his greatest debt of gratitude to those who helped in the least tangible but most important ways: his family and close friends. I could not have gotten to the end of this road without them.
Readers are referred to the Glossary for assistance with German and chemical terminology. A few words of orientation are necessary about each of these subjects.
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I use the phrase "quiet revolution" to denote a series of changes in chemical science during the s, which centered on reforms of atomic weights and molecular formulas and on the subdiscipline of organic chemistry. The essential elements of this extended event included the following: the decline of Jacob Berzelius' electrically based theory of atomic-molecular combination, the rise distanz und nähe beim kennenlernen so-called type theories based on reactions wherein chlorine substitutes for the hydrogen of organic substances, the establishment of consistent "two-volume" molecular magnitudes spanning organic as well as inorganic chemistry, the return from conventional chemical equivalents to a modified version of Berzelian atomic relative dating regents questions, and finally, the introduction of the theory of "atomicity of the elements," relative dating regents questions led to what became known as valence and structure theory.
Couper in ; they were given a particularly clear form and development by A. Butlerov from A largely equivalent and partly independent formulation of these ideas was due to Edward Frankland and Kolbe in There are a number of justifications for emphasizing the magnitude of these developments. The situation was dramatically different a generation later. One example illustrating the change is the Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, which experienced phenomenal growth immediately following its founding in Within a few years, its Berichte ballooned in size from a thin relative dating regents questions in to giant and unwieldy tomes that required repeated subdivision.
Another example is even more telling, namely, the total number of chemical compounds known. In there were about 3, well-characterized substances in the chemical literature; this number had grown steadily during the preceding several decades, with a consistent doubling period of about twenty years.
But just about the trend dramatically accelerated, so that the doubling time thereafter was about nine years.
It has remained so ever since. Events in the story center on the increasing ability of chemists to discern the internal arrangements of the atoms within molecules what in the s and s were usually called molecular constitutions and what are today called structures.
This theoretical knowledge went hand in hand with the new and ever more powerful ability to synthesize both familiar and novel organic substances. The new synthetic chemistry resulted in important applications in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and other products of the burgeoning chemical industry of the late nineteenth century.
Excluding such standard heavy industrial indicators as coal, steel, and railroads, the fine chemicals industry took the leading role in Germany, and it became increasingly dependent on the scientific investigation of chemical substances, especially relative dating regents questions compounds studied via structure theory.
In relative dating regents questions, it can be argued that organic chemistry was the earliest pure science to have a massive impact on technology and on a national economy. Thus, in both the theoretical and applied realms structure theory provided a virtually unlimited and highly fertile field for academic chemists.
To use the Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft as an example once again, the early volumes of the Berichte are packed with structure-theoretical investigations, far outweighing all other kinds of papers put together.
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By nearly all German universities had such institutes, and nearly all were led by organic chemists. The reforms were proposed during a period of theoretical anarchy; both contemporary and subsequent commentators have emphasized the confusion that prevailed during this period.
Neither Laurent nor Gerhardt was able to produce strong new evidence for his views, and the situation was only clarified when Alexander Williamson developed the first compelling experimental chemical evidence for the central element of the reform.
Williamson's work was followed by similar investigations by A. This is not relative dating regents questions deny the traditional key role accorded to the Karlsruhe conference of and to its canonical relative dating regents questions, Stanislao Cannizzaro.
But to a degree that has not previously been appreciated, the revolution had already been largely consummated by the time of the conference, at least in Germany. The relatively invisible nature of these changes has led me to choose the name "quiet revolution. Evidence for this statement is provided in chapter 6.
The Quiet Revolution
Considerations such as these have convinced me that this quiet revolution was the last major transition leading to modern chemistry. One purpose for writing this book, then, is to highlight and chronicle this important period in more depth than has hitherto been attempted. A convenient vehicle for this purpose is the life and career of Hermann Kolbe Kolbe was one of the most outstanding and successful German chemists during the remarkable period in which German chemistry, like the wider manifestations of German industrial and political power, rose to a position of world leadership.
Kolbe was Liebig's favorite chemist among the younger generation and was initially favored to succeed Liebig relative dating regents questions Munich, although that offer never relative dating regents questions.
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At the time of his relative dating regents questions to Leipzig, no one in his generation except perhaps Hofmann could touch his reputation and standing in the field of chemistry. Kolbe was a leading figure in two major interrelated inflection points in the history of science. One was the series of scientific events described above; the other was institutional and pedagogical in nature, namely, the phenomenal growth of academic laboratories starting in Germany after mid-century.