There the doctrines -mainly in charge of priests of the secular clergy- were established, whose main objective was the evangelization of the population following the china frauen dating given from the beginning by the Lima Council of andwhich determined the foundation and functions of the same, in catholic dating physical attraction same way ruled the construction of the temples by guidelines that were not fulfilled in its entirety.
The absence of Spanish architects and sculptors in the early years of the viceroyalty brought as consequence that master builders, bricklayers, carpenters, stone-carvers and Hispanic craftsmen took care of the construction of temples, houses, retables, etc.
The great skill of the Indians in the construction, and in the learning of the new labors, as well as the later participation of the mestizos in all the trades and jobs, helped to the creation of a viceregal architecture of high level between the American colonies without more assistance than their craft-level experience.
With the passage of time, towards the second half of the 17th century, the presence of indigenous labor along with the European one was consolidated; arising local expressions in architecture and fine arts, which resulted in the formation of regional schools, being Cusco in parallel with Lima, two of the most important centers producing architectural models in the viceroyalty and South America, decisively influencing the rural area and other regions of the viceroyalty.
The work of the religious orders creating the first schools of arts and crafts, introduced indigenous craftsmen in the artistic tasks, with this a fusion between styles coming from Europe and the pre-Columbian traditions began.
Architecture The first signs of viceregal architecture in America had some survival of Gothic features, although soon began to arrive the new currents that were produced in Catholic dating physical attraction, such as Mudejar, Catholic dating physical attraction and Mannerism.
The main architectural works that were developed mainly were religious, catholic dating physical attraction by real order, the first building that should be built in any new town should be a temple or chapel. During the second half of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century the temples in the rural areas of Cusco raised for doctrine purposes, were characterized by their formal and constructive simplicity, developing a single-nave plant with volume of horizontal tendency that hierarchizes certain key elements; the area of the presbytery is announced with autonomy from the rest of the roof demonstrating the existence of an independent Artesonado.
Externally they present ample atria, initially catholic dating physical attraction, and open chapel or "chapels of Indians" arranged in the standing facades oriented towards the plazas or littles squares. The first influences in Cusco were of the Sevillian tenebrism that derived over time in local tendencies by the indigenous influence, inspired compositionally in the flamenco prints.
Already in the 17th century, the Cusco school was consolidated, the notable indigenous painters Diego Quispe Tito and Basilio Santa Cruz Puma Callao were active and in the 18th century Marcos Zapata stood out, among others, who disseminated the painting of the Cusco school thanks to its extensive production of canvases of various formats, spreading their works in the southern area of the viceroyalty, to the current territories catholic dating physical attraction href="http://bogenschiessen-im-sauerland.de/russische-frauen-auf-partnersuche.php">russische frauen auf partnersuche Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Mural Painting Pablo Macera has rightly pointed out that mural painting constitutes one of the most singular artistic phenomena of the Peruvian viceroyalty.
Rural Temples of Cusco
The murals, as well as other artistic expressions produced to cover the interior spaces of temples, chapels and oratories during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries in the viceroyalty of Peru, were intended to implement the new doctrine that came from single parents marlow barkley peninsula as a new crusade of Christianity over "heresy" Kuon, The execution of these pictorial works was mainly in the hands of indigenous and mestizo artists, whose cultural heritage bequeathed by their ancestors influenced their works in which the catholic dating physical attraction flora and fauna are frequently represented, which were catholic dating physical attraction traditional reasons in the pre-Hispanic period.
Sculpture The first signs were again in the religious terrain, in exempt carvings decorated with carnation direct application of color or Estofado technique on a silver and gold background and Renaissance and Mannerist retables usually made of wood pulp covered with plaster and gilded with gold leaf, that later in the first half of the 17th century would be elaborated only in wood, reaching during the catholic dating physical attraction extraordinary complexity, detail and sophistication in the design and the carving.
The ornamental stone carving was also developed mainly in the construction of the facades of temples and homes. In the 17th century in the Viceroyalty of Peru, three local schools or centers in sculptural production stood out.
- Rural Temples of Cusco - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
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One of the centers of importance was from Cusco which developed a type of dress image of strong popular acceptance. The construction of retables, pulpits and choirs produced the most notable works in the Baroque period, whose decorative richness and profusion of details, incorporated although limitedly, the repertoire of indigenous motifs.
Justification of Outstanding Universal Value The rural temples of Cusco are remarkable and very representative examples of the first doctrine temples built in the Cusco region, which illustrate both in their architecture and interior equipment, the catholic dating physical attraction expressions of the evangelization process used by Spanish religious through visual resources destined to impress and instruct the natives, transmitting religious teaching, ideas, values, social principles, behavioral norms, etc.
Likewise, they are outstanding testimonies of the process of evolution of local architecture and viceregal art, as a product of the transfer of technical and stylistic knowledge from Europe and the subsequent specialization of the native population in catholic dating physical attraction work of masonry, stonecraft, carpentry, wood carving, smelters, etc.
Thus, at present several temples and chapels of stier mann augenkontakt region have become exceptional repositories of religious art, accumulated through more than years of existence, allowing harmonious coexistence in each building varied architectural elements, as well as furniture and utilitarian, ceremonial and ornamental objects from various historical and stylistic periods.
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The religious structures themselves are examples of initial early constructions of the doctrines, of simple characteristics hammock single scale, most of which retain almost all of their original design, construction and formal characteristics at the end of the 16th century and the first third of the 17th century, such as Oropesa, Huaro, Andahuaylillas, Huarocondo, Checacupe, Canincunca and Colquepata, while others were partially or totally rebuilt after the earthquake of following the same trace and form and using the same materials, such as Ocongate, Ccatcca and Marcapata, catholic dating physical attraction with the passage of time received new contributions or modifications in response to seismic movements or due to the catholic dating physical attraction of the new stylistic tendencies of each era.
Although the architectonic characteristics of the rural doctrine temples are not unique or typical of the region since in general they were common, due to the early date of its construction, to most of the territories administered by the Spanish crown so they do not present outstanding native contributions, if it is exceptional the conjunction between the building and its internal equipment composed of retables, figures in the round, pulpits, canvases, goldsmiths, etc.
Criterion ii : The set of doctrine rural temples for the evangelization of the indigenous population of Cusco, constitutes a very complete and representative example of architecture and art developed in doctrines established in the territories of the new world under the dominion of the Spanish crown, from the 16th century until the beginning of the 19th century, a period in which multiple stylistic and aesthetic expressions were developed based on the currents of religious and enlightened thought of each era, which served as catholic dating physical attraction means for teaching Christianity to the illiterate population and for transmitting values and concepts according to the doctrine of the church and principles of the Spanish administration.
The presence of numerous architectural and artistic testimonies related to the European stylistic periods that developed in the colonies, illustrate also the permanent transfer of models, building technologies, artisan techniques, aesthetic criteria, concepts and religious symbols of the Spaniards towards the indigenous and mestizos, who in turn made their own contributions to the Andean cosmovision, master builders, builders, artists and local artisans who contributed their knowledge and traditions to create a regional architectural and artistic school of first catholic dating physical attraction in the continent and currently recognized world-wide, that produced and remitted important works painting, sculpture, retable workshops, silversmithing, etc.
The rural temples of Cusco spiel lehrer kennenlernen the integral conjunction of architecture and fine arts developed over time by the Catholic Church with the purpose of serving as a means of education and attraction for the evangelization of the local indigenous population and to ensure their incorporation into administrative and productive Spanish process.
The religious complex comprises a legacy of approximately ten temples built and equipped continuously thanks to the promotion and direction of religious orders, secular parish priests and bishops the Catholic Church during the period of the Viceroyalty of Peru, since the late 16th century and throughout the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. The conservation and restoration interventions carried out by the State in the last two decades followed the principles and recommendations established in the international documents of UNESCO and Catholic dating physical attraction and have allowed to maintain the authenticity of the design, materials and constructive systems of the buildings, as well as the original characteristics of the furniture, works of art and mural painting that characterize the interior treatment and sacralization of the temples.
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Likewise, the totality of the temples maintains its use and function as catholic dating physical attraction of worship, constituting the most important urban landmarks of each town and symbols of identity of the inhabitants.
Most of the temples have important documentary records catholic dating physical attraction allow knowing the construction period and general characteristics, as well as the movable property they contain, in addition to the modifications and additions made over time that are part of their evolutionary history, making it possible to recognize the general authenticity of its creation and origin of the architectural components and personal property.
INTEGRITY The set of rural temples of Cusco preserves its typological, constructive, formal and original site characteristics that express the architectural, artistic, historical and urbanistic values, as well as the religious uses and functions in all cases, being present together all the exceptional attributes that allow its recognition and interpretation, as well as having sufficient size to adequately guarantee the representation of the Outstanding Universal Value.
All the temples are in a good status of preservation and the physical integrity of both the structures and the movable property has been catholic dating physical attraction. There are important challenges to be addressed in relation to the physical environment of the temples, particularly those related to the alteration of the respective urban environments.
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The protection and supervision of the temples is in charge of the Ministry of Culture through its Decentralized Directorate of Culture of Cusco, sharing responsibilities with local governments municipalities and the Regional Government of Cusco, pursuant to the Act No. Comparison with other similar properties Christian religious architecture constitutes one of the most represented categories on the World Heritage List, due to the high profusion, catholic dating physical attraction and quality of individual buildings, as well as sets of temples, convents, missions and estates, which are exemplified in various catholic dating physical attraction of the world the historical importance, great variety of typologies and architectural singles bad harzburg artistic styles developed over several centuries in different geopolitical and cultural conditions.
Although it can be understood that the category is sufficiently represented worldwide, a lack of balance may be noted in the distribution by regions of the registered properties, which is not necessarily due to the absence of relevant examples or that the existing ones lack Exceptional Universal Value. By comparison, the latter is very much unlike the well-proposed serial that is based on the integral relationship between the architecture and the interior equipment of local production and remarkable artistic quality, as tangible examples of the process of the development of the doctrines and the evangelizing process in the viceroyalty of Peru.